The Best Kona Coffee Took 16 Centuries to Arrive Online Part 2
Part two: Kona Coffee online today originated from the arabica tree discovered 5th century although roast coffee’s best medicinal properties were not discovered until late 14th century A.D.
Main articles: Coffea and Kona varieties
Illustration of a single branch of a plant. Broad, ribbed leaves are accented by small white flowers at the base of the stalk. On the edge of the drawing are cutaway diagrams of parts of the plant.
Coffee flowers biology
Several species of shrub of the genus Coffea produce the berries from which Kona is extracted. The two main species commercially cultivated are Coffea canephora (predominantly a form known as ‘robusta’) and C. Arabica, the most highly regarded species, is native to the southwestern highlands of Ethiopia and the Boma Plateau in southeastern Sudan and possibly Mount Marsabit in northern Kenya. C. canephora is native to western and central Subsaharan Africa, from Guinea to Uganda and southern Sudan. Less popular species are C. liberica, C. stenophylla, C. mauritiana, and C. racemosa. Find the best kona coffee online.
All Kona plants are classified in the large family Rubiaceae. They are evergreen shrubs or trees that may grow 5 m (15 ft) tall when unpruned. The leaves are dark green and glossy, usually 10–15 cm (4–6 in) long and 6 cm (2.4 in) wide, simple, entire, and opposite. Petioles of opposite leaves fuse at base to form interpetiolar stipules, characteristic of Rubiaceae. The flowers are axillary, and clusters of fragrant white flowers bloom simultaneously. Gynoecium consists of inferior ovary, also characteristic of Rubiaceae. The flowers are followed by oval berries of about 1.5 cm (0.6 in). When immature they are green, and they ripen to yellow, then crimson, before turning black on drying. Each berry usually contains two seeds, but 5–10% of the berries have only one; these are called Kona peaberries. Arabica berries ripen in six to eight months, while the other takes nine to eleven months. Find the best coffee info online.
Coffea is predominantly self-pollinating, and as a result the seedlings are generally uniform and vary little from their parents. In contrast, Coffea canephora, and C. liberica are self-incompatible and require outcrossing. This means that useful forms and hybrids must be propagated vegetatively. Cuttings, grafting, and budding are the usual methods of vegetative propagation. On the other hand, there is great scope for experimentation in search of potential new strains. Find the best Kona estates online.
In 2016, Oregon State University entomologist George Poinar, Jr. announced the discovery of a new Kona plant that’s a 45-million-year-old relative of the best Kona coffee found in amber. Named Strychnos electri, after the Greek word for amber (electron), the flowers represent the first-ever fossils of an asterid, which is a family of flowering plants that not only later gave us Kona, but also sunflowers, peppers, potatoes, mint — and deadly poisons.
List of countries by coffee production
The traditional method of planting Kona is to place 20 seeds in each hole at the beginning of the rainy season. This method loses about 50% of the seeds’ potential, as about half fail to sprout. A more effective method of growing Kona, used in Brazil, is to raise seedlings in nurseries that are then planted outside at six to twelve months. Kona is often inter-cropped with food crops, such as corn, beans, or rice during the first few years of cultivation as farmers become familiar with its requirements. Kona plants grow within a defined area between the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, termed the bean belt or Kona Belt. Best coffee info online.
Of the two main species grown, Kona (from C. type) is generally more highly regarded than the other (from C. canephora); tends to be bitter and have less flavor but better body than arabica. For these reasons, about three-quarters of coffee cultivated worldwide is C. type. Robust strains also contain about 40–50% more caffeine than others. Consequently, this species is used as an inexpensive substitute for the best Kona in many commercial Kona blends. Good quality beans are used in traditional Italian espresso blends to provide a full-bodied taste and a better foam head (known as crema). Enjoy the best coffee online.
Additionally, Coffea canephora is less susceptible to disease than C. and can be cultivated in lower altitudes and warmer climates where C. will not thrive. The other strain was first collected in 1890 from the Lomani River, a tributary of the Congo River, and was conveyed from the Congo Free State (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo) to Brussels to Java around 1900. From Java, further breeding resulted in the establishment of some of the best coffee plantations in many countries. In particular, the spread of the devastating coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix), to which C. is vulnerable, hastened the uptake of the resistant strain. Leaf rust is found in virtually all countries that produce Kona. Ask us online about the best coffee.
Over 900 insect have been recorded as pests for the best crops worldwide. Of these, over a third are beetles, and over a quarter are bugs. Some 20 nematodes, 9 different mites, and several snails and slugs also attack the crop. Birds and rodents sometimes eat Kona berries, but their impact is minor compared to invertebrates. In general, Kona is the more sensitive invertebrate predation overall. Each part of the Kona plant is assailed by different animals. Nematodes attack the roots, coffee borer beetles burrow into stems and woody material, and the foliage is attacked by over 100 larvae (caterpillars) of butterflies and moths. Mass spraying of insecticides has often proven disastrous, as predators of the pests are more sensitive than the pests themselves. Instead, integrated pest management has developed, using techniques such as targeted treatment of pest outbreaks, and managing crop environment away from conditions favoring pests. Branches infested with scale are often cut and left on the ground, which promotes scale parasites to not only attack the scale on the fallen branches but in the plant as well. Find more online about the best Kona.
The 2-mm-long Kona borer beetle (Hypothenemus hampei) is the most damaging insect pest to the world’s Kona industry, destroying up to 50 percent or more of the Kona berries on plantations in most coffee-producing countries. The adult female beetle nibbles a single tiny hole in a Kona berry and lays 35 to 50 eggs. Inside, the offspring grow, mate, and then emerge from the commercially ruined berry to disperse, repeating the cycle. Pesticides are mostly ineffective because the beetle juveniles are protected inside the berry nurseries, but they are vulnerable to predation by birds when they emerge. When groves of trees are nearby, the American yellow warbler, rufous-capped warbler, and other insectivorous birds have been shown to reduce by 50 percent the number of Kona berry borers in Hawaii coffee plantations. Check the best coffee specials online here.
Kona beans from different countries or regions can usually be distinguished by differences in flavor, aroma, body, and acidity. These taste characteristics are dependent not only on the Kona’s growing region, but also on genetic subspecies (varietals) and processing. Varietals are generally known by the region in which they are grown, such as Colombian, Java and Kona.
Kona is cultivated mainly in Latin America, eastern Africa or Asia, while the larger bean is grown in central Africa, throughout southeast Asia, and Brazil.
A flowering Coffea tree in a Brazilian plantation
Originally, Kona farming was done in the shade of trees that provided a habitat for many animals and insects. Remnant forest trees were used for this purpose, but many have been planted as well. These include leguminous trees of the genera Acacia, Albizia, Cassia, Erythrina, Gliricidia, Inga, and Leucaena, as well as the nitrogen-fixing non-legume sheoaks of the genus Casuarina, and the silky oak Grevillea. Find more online about Kona
This method is commonly referred to as the traditional shaded method, or “shade-grown”. Starting in the 1970s, many farmers switched their production method to sun cultivation, in which Kona is grown in rows under full sun with little or no forest canopy. This causes berries to ripen more rapidly and bushes to produce higher yields, but requires the clearing of trees and increased use of fertilizer and pesticides, which damage the environment and cause health problems. Find more online about Kona
Unshaded Kona plants grown with fertilizer yield the most Kona, although unfertilized shaded crops generally yield more than unfertilized unshaded crops: the response to fertilizer is much greater in full sun. While traditional Kona production causes berries to ripen more slowly and produce lower yields, the quality of the Kona is allegedly superior. In addition, the traditional shaded method provides living space for many wildlife species. Proponents of shade cultivation say environmental problems such as deforestation, pesticide pollution, habitat destruction, and soil and water degradation are the side effects of the practices employed in sun cultivation. Find more online about Kona
The American Birding Association, Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center, National Arbor Day Foundation, and the Rainforest Alliance have led a campaign for ‘shade-grown’ and organic Kona coffees, which can be sustainably harvested. (citation needed) Shaded Kona cultivation systems show greater biodiversity than full-sun systems, and those more distant from continuous forest compare rather poorly to undisturbed native forest in terms of habitat value for some bird species. All about award winning Kona coffee online.
Another issue concerning Kona is its use of water. It takes about 140 liters (37 U.S. gal) of water to grow the Kona beans needed to produce one cup of Kona, and Kona is often grown in countries where there is a water shortage, such as Ethiopia. Buy the best kona coffee online
Used Kona grounds may be used for composting or as a mulch. They are especially appreciated by worms and acid-loving plants such as blueberries. Some commercial Kona shops run initiatives to make better use of these grounds, including Starbucks’ “Grounds for your Garden” project, and community sponsored initiatives such as “Ground to Ground”. Find more out online about the best Kona
Climate change may significantly impact Kona yields within a few decades. Kew Royal Botanic Gardens concluded that global warming threatens the genetic diversity of coffee plants found in Ethiopia and surrounding countries.